Suing the Insurance Company for Your Long Term Disability Benefits in DC.
If you're like most people, you thought long term disability was there to help you in case you got sick or injured and couldn't work. Most people think it is a simple process of filling out some forms and sending the insurance company your doctor's notes that say you can't work. And let's face it, there are a lot of myths and misconceptions about long term disability claims.
If you're suffering from a serious injury or illness that prevents you from working, that's just the start of the process. Before you can sue the long term disability company that denied or terminated your benefits, there's a lot of work to do.
How Do Long Term Disability Claims Work in DC?
We've written a lot about how to get started with your long term disability claim in DC - and it always starts with getting a copy of your specific disability policy to determine the terms and conditions. And if you need to file a claim, make sure you comply with the policy provisions on notice.
You may be surprised at what's in there, especially if you have a policy that your employer provided as part of your employee benefits. Most of these policies are written to give the insurance company every opportunity to deny or limit your claim, even with a serious, legitimate injury or illness.
And that's perfectly legal - courts have allowed insurance companies to do this, and typically interpreted the federal law that governs long term disability claims, ERISA (Employee Retirement Income Security Act) in favor of insurance companies rather than claimants.
What Do You Need to Know About the Long Term Disability Process?
Once you receive a denial letter from Mass Mutual or any long term disability insurance company, you have a lot of work to do, but you can't sue them yet. Instead, you have to file an appeal of the denial with the same insurance company that just denied your claim. And you only have 180 days to do it. The appeal you file in response to the denial letter is a critical step in the process.
You see, if the insurance company denies your appeal, that appeal - all of the evidence you put into it - will become the administrative record that the federal district judge will use to decide your case. Unfortunately, a lot of people and lawyers who don't understand ERISA disability cases, think that they will get a fresh start after filing a case in federal court (ERISA is a federal law, so these are federal cases). They think they can start the case from scratch and conduct discovery, take depositions, have expert witnesses, doctors, vocational rehabilitation counselors, physical therapists, supervisors and co-workers testify about the extent of your illness or injuries and why they prevent you from working.
Most people think that, but its not true - ERISA disability cases are not like other serious injury cases caused by medical malpractice, car or truck accidents.
There is no jury trial or discovery. Usually the federal judge will be deciding whether the disability insurance companies decision to end or deny your benefits was "reasonable" - and to do that, the only thing the judge will review is the administrative record (your appeal) and the briefs you and the insurance company file.
It's not a fair system - so know that going in.
Make sure your appeal is packed with evidence to show that the insurance companies denial was not reasonable, that they ignored important evidence or misinterpreted something. An appeal will have arguments about why the decision was unreasonable, but to be effective, you must show why your appeal should be granted - and you should be writing it with a federal judge in mind as the ultimate audience.
As soon as you get the letter denying or terminating your benefits, order a complete copy of your claim file, or a good lawyer will do this for you immediately. Depending on your condition and whether you've been receiving benefits, the insurance company claim file can be hundreds and hundreds of pages long.
You need to read, understand and analyze all of the information in that claim file - medical, vocational, educational, policy terms and definitions, surveillance (insurance companies routinely spy on you to see if you are working or doing things that are inconsistent with your medical condition or restrictions.
And keep in mind - you only have 180 days to file your appeal.
The disability insurance company has 45 days to decide your appeal (although this can be extended by an additional 45 days).
What if the Insurance Company Denies Your Appeal for Long Term Disability Benefits?
Even if you've put everything you had into the appeal - you interviewed your doctors and transcribed their opinions, you had a Functional Capacity Exam performed to objectively show your limitations, you engaged a vocational expert who indicated there were no other jobs available in light of your physical limitations and training, education, experience, you reached out to expert consultants on your specific illness or injury and provided medical reports, peer reviewed literature and other evidence, the insurance company can still say it's original denial was "reasonable."
Once your appeal has been denied, you can sue the disability insurance company by filing a Complaint in US District Court (federal court). You can't do that until you have been through the appeal process with the insurance company (sometimes that's called exhausting your remedies).
ERISA long term disability claims are complex and challenging - with tight deadlines, difficult legal standards and a sophisticated insurance company as an opponent. There are steps you can take to prepare your own case or appeal, but without an ERISA disability lawyer to help, you are at a serious disadvantage.